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Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels Volume 1

Biofeedstocks and Their Processing
Edited by Lalit Kumar Singh and Gaurav Chaudhary
Series: Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels
Copyright: 2017   |   Status: Published
ISBN: 9781119117254  |  Hardcover  |  
180 pages
Price: $195 USD
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One Line Description
The most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of all the possible aspects for biofeedstock processing and the production of energy from biofeedstocks.

Chemical engineers, petroleum engineers, process engineers, students in chemical engineering, biotechnology, petroleum engineering, agricultural biotechnology, applied microbiology, environmental biotechnology, and other areas.

Biofuels production is one of the most extensively studied fields in the energy sector that can provide an alternative energy source and bring the energy industry closer to sustainability. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a potential solution for man-made climate change, depleted oil reserves, and the dangers involved with hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”). The price of oil will always be volatile and changeable, and, as long as industry and private citizens around the world need energy, there will be a need for alternative energy sources. The area known as “biofuels and biofeedstocks” is one of the most important and quickly growing pieces of the “energy pie.”

But biofuels and biofeedstocks are constantly changing, and new processes are constantly being created, changed, and improved upon. The area is rapidly changing and always innovative. It is important, therefore, that books like the volumes in this series are published and the information widely disseminated to keep the industry informed of the state-of-the-art.

This first volume in this groundbreaking new series is a collection of papers from some of the world’s foremost authorities on biofeedstocks and biofuels, covering biofeedstocks and how they are processed. It is a must-have for any engineer, scientist, technician, or student working in this area.

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Supplementary Data
• Covers all the aspects of biofeedstocks and their suitability as an alternative energy source
• Covers all the updated protocols for biofeedstock processing
• Is the only book covering biofeestocks and their processes in such a comprehensive manner, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomass, and the future of bioenergy
• Is suitable not only for the engineer working with biofeedstocks, but as a textbook for graduate students, post-doctoral students, and researchers

Author / Editor Details
Lalit K. Singh, PhD, was educated at Harcourt Butler Technological Institute Kanpur and received his doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Through his research, he developed a novel sequential-co-culture technique for the efficient bioconversion of sugars to bioethanol, and important innovation in the field of biofuels and fermentation technology. He has more than 25 publications in international journals, conference proceedings, and chapters in books. He has also organized several national seminars, faculty development programs and other academic activities.

Gaurav Chaudhary, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology at Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, having earned Since a doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technolog in Roorkee, India in the field of biofuel/bioenergy. He has published five research articles in peer reviewed international journals and presented his research work in several national and international conferences. Currently he is involved in teaching & research development activities in the areas of biochemical engineering, biofuels, bioenergy, and phytochemicals.

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Table of Contents
1 Production of Bioenergy in the Framework of Circular
Economy: A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 1
Vega-Quezada Cristhian, Blanco María and Romero Hugo
1.1 Introduction 2
1.1.1 Energy and Bioenergy 2
1.1.2 Ecuadorian Case 4
1.2 A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 5
1.2.1 Biogas 5 CO2 Emissions 8 Potential Electricity Power 12
1.2.2 Biodiesel 14 Biodiesel in Ecuador 15
1.2.3 Microalgae Biodiesel 16 Biomass Production 18 Lipid Extraction 18
1.3 Microalgae versus Palm Oil in Ecuador 19
1.3.1 Palm Oil 20
1.3.2 Microalgae oil 21 Microalgae in Open Ponds 23 Microalgae in Laminar Photobioreactor 24
1.4 Discussion 27
1.5 Conclusion 29
Acknowledgements 29
Reference 30
2 The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Composition
and Pre-treatments on Tar Formation During
Biomass Gasification 33
Corton J and Donnison I.S
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 Tar Composition 35
2.3 Tar Formation and Cell Wall Polymers 35
2.3.1 The Impact of Plant Type Upon Tar Production 37
2.3.2 Blending 38
2.3.3 Ash Composition 39
2.4 Thermochemical Pre-treatments 40
2.4.1 Torrefaction 40
2.4.2 Slow Pyrolysis 40
2.4.3 Intermediate Pyrolysis 43
2.4.4 Fast Pyrolysis 43
2.5 Processing Options that Exploit Conversion
Route Integration 44
2.6 Conclusion 47
Acknowledgements 49
References 50
3 Key Pretreatment Technologies for An Efficient
Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosics 53
Archana Mishra and Sanjoy Ghosh
3.1 Introduction 54
3.2 Pretreatment Methods for Lignocellulosic Biomass 56
3.2.1 Parameters for Effective Pretreatment of
Lignocellulosics 57
3.2.2 Important Pretreatment Methods 59 Physical or Mechanical Methods 59 Physico-chemical Methods 60 Chemical Methods 65 Biological Methods 72
3.3 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 73
References 76
4 Present Status On Enzymatic Hydrolysis of
Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production 85
Arindam Kuila, Vinay Sharma, Vijay Kumar Garlapati,
Anshu Singh, Lakshmishri Roy and Rintu Banerjee
4.1 Introduction 86
4.2 Hydrolysis/Saccharification 87
4.2.1 Cellulase 87
4.2.2 Screening of Cellulase-producing
Microorganisms 88
4.2.3 Cellulase Production 90
4.2.4 Factors Affecting the Cellulase
Mediated Hydrolysis 90
4.3 Future prospects of enzymatic hydrolysis 93
References 93
5 Biological Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomaterials 97
Sandeep Kaur Saggi, Geetika Gupta and Pinaki Dey
5.1 Introduction 97
5.1.1 Different Source for Bioethanol Production 99
5.1.2 Lignocellulosic Materials 100
5.1.3 Cellulose 101
5.1.4 Hemicellulose 102
5.1.5 Xylan 103
5.1.6 Lignin 104
5.1.7 Lignin Carbohydrate Interactions 106
5.2 Pretreatment 106
5.2.1 Pretreatment 106
5.3 Microbial Pretreatment Process 107
5.3.1 Fungi 107
5.3.2 Bacteria 112
5.4 Conclusion 113
References 113
6 Anaerobic Digestion and the Use of Pre-treatments on
Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Improve Biogas
Production and Process Economics 121
Laura Williams, Joe Gallagher, David Bryant and
Sreenivas Rao Ravella
6.1 Introduction 121
6.2 Feedstocks Available for AD 124
6.2.1 Lignocellulosic Feedstock Analysis and
Substrate Suitability 124
6.2.2 Substrate Parameters and Co-digestion 129
6.3 Feedstock Pre-treatment to Improve AD 130
6.3.1 Available Pre-treatment Processes 131
6.3.2 Pre-treatment Effects on Substrate 133
6.3.3 Effects of Pre-treatment on Methane Yields 134
6.4 Pre-treatment and Optimizing AD 136
6.4.1 Advances in Pre-treatment Methods and
AD Conditions 136
6.4.2 Value-added Products and AD 138
6.5 Conclusion 140
Acknowledgments 141
References 141
7 Algae: The Future of Bioenergy 149
Nivas Manohar Desai
7.1 Introduction 149
7.2 Technological Innovations for Algae Cultivation,
Harvesting and Drying 151
7.2.1 Cultivation Practices 152 Open Cultivation Systems 152 Closed Cultivation Systems
(Photobioreactors) 153 Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) 154 Sea-based Cultivation Systems 157
7.2.2 Harvesting of Biomass 158 Settling Ponds 159 Filtration 159 Centrifugation 159 Flotation 160 Flocculation 160 Electrolytic Coagulation 161
7.2.3 Energy Efficiencies of Harvesting Processes 161
7.2.4 Algal Drying 162
7.3 Algae-based Bioenergy Products 162
7.3.1 Biofuel and Biodiesel 163
7.3.2 Biogas (Biomethane Production) 164
7.3.3 Bioethanol 165
7.3.4 Biohydrogen 166 Direct Biophotolysis 166 Indirect Biophotolysis 167 Photo Fermentation 168
7.4 Concluding Remarks 168
Acknowledgement 169
References 169

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TEC031010 : TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable
SCI013060 : SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
BUS070040 : BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Energy
THX: Alternative & renewable energy sources & technology
TDCB: Chemical engineering

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