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Gas Injection for Disposal and Enhanced Recovery

Edited by Ying Wu, John J. Carroll, and Qi Li
Series: Advances in Natural Gas Engineering
Copyright: 2014   |   Status: Published
ISBN: 9781118938560  |  Hardcover  |  
416 pages
Price: $199 USD
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One Line Description
This fourth volume in the series, Advances in Natural Gas Engineering, offers the most in-depth and up-to-date treatment of the disposal and enhanced recovery of natural gas.

Audience
Process engineers, chemical engineers, reservoir engineers, geologist, geochemist and other engineers and scientists working in natural gas


Description
This is the fourth volume in a series of books focusing on natural gas engineering, focusing on two of the most important issues facing the industry today: disposal and enhanced recovery of natural gas. This volume includes information for both upstream and downstream operations, including chapters on shale, geological issues, chemical and thermodynamic models, and much more.

Written by some of the most well-known and respected chemical and process engineers working with natural gas today, the chapters in this important volume represent the most cutting-edge and state-of-the-art processes and operations being used in the field. Not available anywhere else, this volume is a must-have for any chemical engineer, chemist, or process engineer working with natural gas.

There are updates of new technologies in other related areas of natural gas, in addition to disposal and enhanced recovery, including sour gas, acid gas injection, and natural gas hydrate formations. Advances in Natural Gas Engineering is an ongoing series of books meant to form the basis for the working library of any engineer working in natural gas today. Every volume is a must-have for any engineer or library.


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Author / Editor Details
Ying (Alice) Wu is currently the President of Sphere Technology Connection Ltd. (STC) in Calgary, Canada. From 1983 to 1999 she was an Assistant Professor and Researcher at Southwest Petroleum Institute (now Southwest Petroleum University, SWPU) in Sichuan, China. She received her MSc in Petroleum Engineering from the SWPU and her BSc in Petroleum Engineering from Daqing Petroleum University in Heilongjiang, China.

John J. Carroll, PhD, PEng is the Director, Geostorage Process Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary, Canada. Dr. Carroll holds bachelor and doctoral degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and is a registered professional engineer in the provinces of Alberta and New Brunswick in Canada. His fist book, Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers, is now in its second edition, and he is the author or co-author of 50 technical publications and about 40 technical presentations.

Qi Li, PhD, is the Professor of CCS Research Group at Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics at the Wuhan Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is a geoscientist with expertise in the fields of hydrogeology and engineering mechanics. Prof. Li’s research is currently focused in the CCS field include mechanical stability of disposal reservoirs, multiphase flow, coupled processes, and risk monitoring. He also involved some research projects using laboratory and numerical tools to design novel subsurface disposal processes and on disposal site monitoring systems on different temporal and spatial scales.


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Table of Contents
Preface xvii
Section 1: Data and Correlations
1 Densities of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Mixtures Part I: Comparison
with Pure CO2 1
Erin L. Roberts and John J. Carroll
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Density 2
1.3 Literature Review 2
1.3.1 CO2 + Methane 2
1.3.2 CO2 + Nitrogen 4
1.4 Calculations 4
1.4.1 Kay’s Rule 6
1.4.2 Modified Kay’s Rule 12
1.4.3 Prausnitz-Gunn 19
1.5 Discussion 19
1.6 Conclusion 27
References 27
2 Densities of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Mixtures Part II:
Comparison with Th ermodynamic Models 29
Erin L. Roberts and John J. Carroll
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Literature Review 30
2.3 Calculations 30
2.4 Lee Kesler 31
2.5 Benedict-Webb- Rubin (BWR) 37
2.6 Peng-Robinson 43
2.7 Soave-Redlich-Kwong 49
2.8 AQUAlibrium 54
vi Contents
2.9 Discussion 60
2.10 Conclusion 62
References 63
3 On Transferring New Constant Pressure Heat Capacity
Computation Methods to Engineering Practice 65
Sepideh Rajaeirad and John M. Shaw
3.1 Introduction 65
3.2 Materials and Methods 66
3.3 Results and Discussion 67
3.4 Conclusions 70
References 70
4 Developing High Precision Heat Capacity Correlations
for Solids, Liquids and Ideal Gases 73
Jenny Boutros and John M. Shaw
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 Databases and Methods 75
4.3 Results and Discussion 77
4.4 Conclusion 77
References 77
5 Method for Generating Shale Gas Fluid Composition from
Depleted Sample 79
Henrik Sørensen, Karen S. Pedersen and Peter L. Christensen
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Th eory of Chemical Equilibrium Applied
to Reservoir Fluids 80
5.3 Reservoir Fluid Composition from a
Non-Representative Sample 83
5.3.1 Depleted Gas Condensate Samples 83
5.3.2 Samples from Tight Reservoirs 86
5.4 Numerical Examples 87
5.4.1 Depleted Gas Condensate Samples 87
5.4.2 Samples from Tight Reservoirs 92
5.5 Discussion of the Results 94
5.6 Conclusions 96
5.7 Nomenclature 97
Contents vii
Greek letters 97
Sub and super indices 97
References 98
6 Phase Equilibrium in the Systems Hydrogen
Sulfi de + Methanol and Carbon Dioxide + Methanol 99
Marco A. Satyro and John J. Carroll
6.1 Introduction 100
6.2 Literature Review 101
6.2.1 Hydrogen Sulfi de + Methanol 101
6.2.2 Carbon Dioxide + Methanol 101
6.3 Modelling With Equations Of State 102
6.4 Summary 107
6.5 Nomenclature 108
Greek 109
Subscripts 109
References 109
7 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium, Viscosity and Interfacial
Tension Modelling of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene
Glycol or Triethylene Glycol in the Presence of Methane,
Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfi de 111
Shu Pan, Na Jia, Helmut Schroeder, Yuesheng Cheng,
Kurt A.G. Schmidt and Heng-Joo Ng
7.1 Introduction 111
7.2 Results and Discussion 112
7.2.1 Experimental 112
7.2.2 Vapour Liquid Equilibrium and Phase Density
Modeling 113
7.2.3 Liquid-Phase Viscosity Modeling 117
7.2.4 Interfacial Tension Modeling 118
7.2.5 Commercial Soft ware Comparison 119
7.3 Conclusions 122
7.4 Nomenclature 122
7.5 Acknowledgement 125
References 124
Appendix 7.A 125
viii Contents
Section 2: Process Engineering
8 Enhanced Gas Dehydration using Methanol
Injection in an Acid Gas Compression System 129
M. Rafay Anwar, N. Wayne McKay and Jim R. Maddocks
8.1 Introduction 129
8.2 Methodology 130
8.2.1 Modeling Soft ware 130
8.2.2 Simulation Setup 131
8.3 CASE I: 100 % CO2 132
8.3.1 How Much to Dehydrate 132
8.3.2 Dehydration using Air Coolers 135
8.3.3 Methanol injection for hydrate suppression 136
8.3.4 Methanol Injection for Achieving 2:1
Water Content 136
8.3.5 DexPro™ for Achieving 2:1 Water Content 137
8.4 CASE II: 50 Percent CO2, 50 Percent H2S 140
8.4.1- How Much to Dehydrate? 140
8.4.2 Dehydration using Air Coolers 141
8.4.3 Methanol Injection for Hydrate Suppression 141
8.4.4 Methanol Injection for Achieving 2:1
Water Content 141
8.4.5 DexPro™ for Achieving 2:1 Water Content 142
8.5 CASE III: Enhanced Oil Recovery Composition 142
8.5.1 How Much to Dehydrate? 142
8.5.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery using Methanol 146
8.6 Conclusion 150
8.7 Additional Notes 151
References 151
9 Comparison of the Design of CO2-capture Processes
using Equilibrium and Rate Based Models 153
A.R.J. Arendsen, G.F. Versteeg, J. van der Lee,
R. Cota and M.A. Satyro
9.1 Introduction 155
9.2 VMG Rate Base 155
9.3 Rate Based Versus Equilibrium Based Models 157
9.3.1 Physical Absorption 158
9.3.2 Isothermal Absorption with Chemical Reactions 160
Contents ix
9.4 Process Simulations 162
9.4.1 Confi guration 162
9.4.2 Absorber 162
9.4.3 Absorber and Regenerator 167
9.4.4 Temperature Profi le 171
9.5 Conclusions 173
References 174
10 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Using Aqueous Amines:
A Mass-Transfer Study 177
Ray A. Tomcej
10.1 Introduction 178
10.2 Mass Transfer Basics 179
10.3 Factors Infl uencing Mass Transfer 182
10.3.1 Concentration Driving Force 182
10.3.2 Reaction Rate Constant 184
10.3.3 Interfacial Area 186
10.4 Examples 188
10.4.1 Venturi/Spray Tower System 188
10.4.2 Amine Contactor with Pumparound 189
10.5 Summary 190
References 191
11 BASF Technology for CO2 Capture and Regeneration 193
Sean Rigby, Gerd Modes, Stevan Jovanovic, John Wei,
Koji Tanaka, Peter Moser and Torsten Katz
11.1 Introduction 195
11.2 Materials and Methods 197
11.2.1 HiPACTTM Laboratory Screening [4] 197
11.2.2 HiPACTTMPilot Plant [4] 197
11.2.3 HiPACTTM Demonstration Plant [5] 199
11.2.4 HiPACTTM Case Study [4,5] 201
11.2.5 OASETM blue Laboratory Screening [6, 7, 8, 9] 203
11.2.6 OASETM blue Miniplant [7, 9] 203
11.2.7 OASETM blue Pilot Plant: Niederaussem [7,8,10] 203
11.2.8 OASETM blue Case Study [1,2] 205
11.3 Results 206
11.3.1 HiPACTTMCO2 Capture Technology for
Natural Gas Treating 207
x Contents
11.3.2 HiPACTTMSolvent Stability and Losses 208
11.3.3 HiPACTTM Solvent CO2 Absorption Capacity
and Kinetics 209
11.3.4 HiPACTTM Materials Compatibility 211
11.3.5 HiPACTTM Energy Requirements 212
11.3.6 HiPACTTM CO2 Stripping Pressure 212
11.3.7 HiPACTTM Economics 213
11.3.8 OASETM blue CO2 Capture Technology for
Flue Gas Treating 215
11.3.9 OASETM blue Solvent Stability and Losses 215
11.3.10 OASETM blue Process Materials Compatibility 218
11.3.11 OASETM blue Solvent Capacity,
Kinetics, Energy Requirements, and
CO2 Stripping Pressure 219
11.3.12 OASETM blue Economics 220
11.3.13 OASETM blue Emissions 222
11.4 Conclusions 223
11.5 Acknowledgements and Disclaimer 225
References 226
12 Seven Deadly Sins of Filtration and Separation Systems
in Gas Processing Operations 227
David Engel and Michael H. Sheilan
12.1 Gas Processing and Contamination Control 228
12.1.1 Feed and Effl uent Separation 229
12.1.2 Unit Internal Separation 230
12.1.3 Seven Sins of Separation Devices in Gas
Processing Facilities 230
12.2 Th e Seven Deadly Sins of Filtration and
Separation Systems in Gas Processing Operations 231
12.2.1 Sin 1. Unsuitable Technology for the Application 231
12.2.2 Sin 2. Incorrect Compatibility
(thermal, chemical, mechanical) 233
12.2.3 Sin 3. Defi cient Vessel Design 234
12.2.4 Sin 4. Inappropriate Sealing Surfaces 235
12.2.5 Sin 5. Wrong Internals & Media 236
12.2.6 Sin 6. Lack of or Incorrect
Maintenance Procedures 237
12.2.7 Sin 7. Instrumentation Defi ciencies 239
12.3 Concluding Remarks 240
Contents xi
Section 3: Acid Gas Injection
13 Development of Management Information System of
Global Acid Gas Injection Projects 243
Qi Li, Guizhen Liu and Xuehao Liu
13.1 Background 243
13.2 Architecture of AGI-MIS 244
13.3 Data management 246
13.4 Data mining and information visualization 248
13.4.1 Injection formation 248
13.4.2 Pipeline 249
13.4.3 Injection rate 250
13.4.4 Leakage events 250
13.5 Interactive program 251
13.6 Conclusions 252
13.7 Acknowledgements 252
References 253
14 Control and Prevention of Hydrate Formation and
Accumulation in Acid Gas Injection Systems During
Transient Pressure/Temperature Conditions 255
Alberto A. Gutierrez and James C. Hunter
14.1 General Agi System Considerations 255
14.2 Composition And Properties Of Treated Acid Gases 256
14.3 Regulatory And Technical Restraints
On Injection Pressures 258
14.4 Phase Equilibria, Hydrate Formation Boundaries And
Prevention Of Hydrate Formation In Agi Systems 259
14.4.1 Hydrate Formation Conditions in
AGI Compression Facilities 259
14.4.2 Hydrate Controls in AGI Compression Facilities 260
14.5 Formation, Remediation And Prevention Of Hydrate
Formation During Unstable Injection Conditions –
Th ree Case Studies 263
14.5.1 Case 1: CO2 – rich TAG (90% CO2, 10%H2S)
Injection into a 2,000 m Deep
Clastic Reservoir 263
14.5.2 Case 2: CO2-Rich TAG (75% CO2, 25% H2S)
Injected Into a 3050 m Deep Carbonate
Reservoir 267
xii Contents
14.5.3 Case 3: CO2-Rich TAG (82% CO2, 18% H2S)
Injected Into a 2950 m Deep Carbonate/Clastic
Reservoir 270
14.6 Discussion And Conclusions 272
References 273
15 Review of Mechanical Properties Related Problems
for Acid Gas Injection 275
Qi Li, Xuehao Liu, Lei Du and Xiaying Li
15.1 Introduction 276
15.2 Impact Elements 276
15.2.1 Well 277
15.2.2 Reservoir 280
15.2.3 Caprock 281
15.3 Coupled Processes 285
15.4 Failure Criteria 286
15.5 Conclusions 286
15.6 Acknowledgements 287
References 287
16 Comparison of CO2 Storage Potential in Pyrolysed Coal
Char of diff erent Coal Ranks 293
Pavan Pramod Sripada, MM Khan, Shanmuganathan
Ramasamy, VajraTeji Kanneganti, Japan Trivedi and
Rajender Gupta
16.1 Introduction 294
16.2 Apparatus, Methods, & Materials 295
16.2.1 Sample Characterization 297
16.3 Results And Discussion 298
16.3.1 Repeatability of adsorption experiments 298
16.3.2 Adsorption capacities of coal 299
16.3.3 Adsorption capacities of coal chars 300
16.3.4 Eff ect of temperature on blank test 301
16.4 Conclusion 302
References 302
Contents xiii
Section 4: Carbon Dioxide Storage
17 Capture of CO2 and Storage in Depleted Gas Reservoirs in
Alberta as Gas Hydrate 305
Duo Sun, Nagu Daraboina, John Ripmeester and
Peter Englezos
17.1 Experimental 306
17.2 Results And Discussion 307
17.3 Conclusions 310
Reference 310
18 Geological Storage of CO2 as Hydrate in a McMurray
Depleted Gas Reservoir 311
Olga Ye. Zatsepina, Hassan Hassanzadeh and
Mehran Pooladi-Darvish
18.1 Introduction 312
18.2 Fundamentals 313
18.2.1 Gas Flow 313
18.2.2 Hydrate Phase Equilibrium 313
18.2.3 Assumptions 314
18.3 Reservoir 314
18.3.1 Geological Model 314
18.3.2 Base Case 316
18.4 Sensitivity Studies 322
18.4.1 Eff ect of the Injection Rate 322
18.4.2 Eff ect of the number of wells 324
18.4.3 Eff ect of the initial saturation of water 325
18.4.4 Eff ect of the heat removal 325
18.5 Long-term storage 326
18.6 Summary and conclusions 327
18.7 Acknowledgements 329
References 329
xiv Contents
Section 5: Reservoir Engineering
19 A Modifi ed Calculation Method for the Water Coning
Simulation Mode in Oil Reservoirs with Bottom Water Drive 331
Weiyao Zhu, Xiaohe Huang and Ming Yue
19.1 Introduction 331
19.2 Mathematical Model 332
19.3 Solution 334
19.4 Results and Discussion 335
19.5 Conclusions 336
19.6 Nomenclature 336
References 337
20 Prediction Method on the Multi-scale Flow Patterns and
the Productivity of a Fracturing Well in Shale Gas Reservoir 339
Weiyao Zhu, Jia Deng and M.A. Qian
20.1 Introduction 340
20.2 Multi-scale fl ow state analyses of the shale gas reservoirs 340
20.3 Multi-scale seepage non-linear model in shale
gas reservoir 343
20.3.1 Non-linear model considering on diff usion
and slippage eff ect 343
20.3.2 Multi-scale seepage model considering of
diff usion, slippage and desorption eff ect 347
20.4 Productivity prediction method of fracturing well 348
20.4.1 Productivity prediction method of
vertical fracturing well 348
20.4.2 Productivity method of horizontal well
with multi transverse cracks 349
20.5 Production Forecasting 351
20.6 Conclusions 354
20.7 Acknowledgements 354
References 355
21 Methane recovery from natural gas hydrate in porous
sediment using gaseous CO2, liquid CO2, and CO2 emulsion 357
Sheng-li Li, Xiao-Hui Wang, Chang-Yu Sun,
Qing-Yuan and Guang-Jin Chen
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Experiments 359
Contents xv
21.2.1 Apparatus and materials 359
21.2.2 Procedure 360
21.3 Results and Discussion 361
21.3.1 Th e replacement percent of CH4 with
gaseous CO2 362
21.3.2 Th e replacement percent of CH4 with liquid CO2 364
21.3.3 Th e replacement percent of CH4 with
CO2-in-water emulsion 366
21.4 Conclusion 368
21.5 Acknowledgements 369
References 369
Section 6: Hydrates
22 On the Role of Ice-Solution Interface in Heterogeneous
Nucleation of Methane Clathrate Hydrates 371
PaymanPirzadeh and Peter G. Kusalik
22.1 Introduction 371
22.2 Method Summary 373
22.3 Results and Discussion 373
22.4 Summary 378
References 379
23 Evaluating and Testing of Gas Hydrate Anti-Agglomerants in
(Natural Gas + Diesel Oil + Water) Dispersed System 381
Chang-Yu Sun, Jun Chen, Ke-Le Yan, Sheng-Li Li,
Bao-ZiPeng and Guang-Jin Chen
23.1 Introduction 381
23.2 Experimental Apparatus And Analysis 382
23.3 Results And Discussion 382
23.3.1 Measurement of water-droplet size in emulsion 382
23.3.2 Morphology of hydrate slurry formed
in emulsion 383
23.3.3 Gas consumption in the hydrate formation
process in emulsion 383
23.3.4 Flow characteristic and morphology of
hydrate slurry in a fl ow loop apparatus 383
23.4 Conclusion 385
xvi Contents
Section 7: Biology
24 “Is Th at a Bacterium in Your Trophosome, or Are You
Just Happy to See Me?” - Hydrogen Sulfi de,
Chemosynthesis, and the Origin of Life 387
Neil Christopher Griffi n
24.1 Introducing the extremophiles 387
24.2 Tempted by the guts of another 388
24.3 Chemosynthesis 101 389
24.4 Chemosynthetic bacteria and the origins of life 391
References 392
Index 000

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BISAC SUBJECT HEADINGS
TEC031030: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels
SCI032000: SCIENCE / Physics / Geophysics
SCI013080: SCIENCE / Chemistry / Environmental
 
BIC CODES
THFG: Gas technology
TQ: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
TDCB: Chemical engineering

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