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Sour Gas and Related Technologies

Edited by Ying Wu, John J. Carroll, and Weiyao Zhu
Series: Advances in Natural Gas Engineering
Copyright: 2012   |   Status: Published
ISBN: 9780470948149  |  Hardcover  |  
292 pages
Price: $199 USD
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One Line Description
This three-volume series, Advances in Natural Gas Engineering, focuses on the engineering of natural gas and its advancement as an increasingly important energy resource. Written by a group of the most well-known and knowledgeable authors on the subject in the world, volume three focuses on one of the hottest topics in natural gas today, sour gas. This is a must for any engineer working in natural gas, the energy field, or process engineering.

Audience
Process engineers, chemical engineers, reservoir engineers, geologist, geochemist and other engineers and scientists working in natural gas

Description
In our search for “greener” technologies and better ways to fuel our cars and heat our homes, more and more countries and industries are turning to natural gas, a cleaner burning fuel than coal or oil, with big supplies around the world, including North America. Some have even suggested that turning to natural gas can help reduce the US’s dependence on foreign oil, thus strengthening our national security. This series of three books focuses on this natural resource and the cutting-edge new technologies that have recently been developed to help the industry “go green.”

The third in a series of books focusing on sour gas and related technologies. This volume includes information about upgrading sour gas and the injection of acid gas as an alternative to sulfur production. There are contributions on both surface and subsurface aspects.

Also included in this volume are experimental data for density, viscosity, and water content that are so important for the proper design of projects for handling sour gas.

There are descriptions of new technologies for the sour gas business including a new method to process sour gas and an update on a technology for dehydration.


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Author / Editor Details
Ying (Alice) Wu is currently the President of Sphere Technology Connection Ltd. (STC) in Calgary, Canada. From 1983 to 1999 she was an Assistant Professor and Researcher at Southwest Petroleum Institute (now Southwest Petroleum University, SWPU) in Sichuan, China. She received her MSc in Petroleum Engineering from the SWPU and her BSc in Petroleum Engineering from Daqing Petroleum University in Heilongjiang, China.

John J. Carroll, PhD, PEng is the Director, Geostorage Process Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary, Canada. Dr. Carroll holds bachelor and doctoral degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and is a registered professional engineer in the provinces of Alberta and New Brunswick in Canada. His fist book, Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers, is now in its second edition, and he is the author or co-author of 50 technical publications and about 40 technical presentations.


Weiyoa Zhu is Professor at University of Science & Technology Beijing in China and Adjunct Professor in State Key Lab of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery at the Northeast Petroleum University. He has published more than 100 technical papers and an author of 6 technical books. His research focus is on fluid mechanics in porous media, the theory and application of the multiphase flow for resource exploitation, new energy development, environmental fluid mechanics, and reservoir simulation.

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Table of Contents
Preface xiii
Introduction xiv
Part 1: Data: Experiments and Correlation
1. Equilibrium Water Content Measurements for Acid Gas
at High Pressures and Temperatures 3
Francis Bernard, Robert A. Marriott, and Binod R. Giri
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Experimental 6
1.3 Recent Results and Modelling 10
1.3.1 Partitioning of Hydrogen Sulfi de
(H2S Solubility in Water) 11
1.3.2 Partitioning of Water (Water Content in H2S) 15
1.3.3 Discussion of Results 16
1.4 Conclusions 19
References 19
2. Comparative Study on Gas Deviation Factor Calculating
Models for CO2 Rich Gas Reservoirs 21
Nan Zhang, Xiao Guo, Qiang Zhang, Rentian Yan,
and Yan Ran
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Deviation Factor Correlations 22
2.2.1 Empirical Formulas 23
2.2.1.1 Dranchuk-Purvis-Robinsion
(DPR) Model 23
2.2.1.2 Dranchuk-Abu-Kassem (DAK)
Model [10] 24
2.2.1.3 Hall-Yarborough (HY) Model 24
vi Contents
2.2.1.4 Beggs and Brill (BB) Model 25
2.2.1.5 Sarem Model 25
2.2.1.6 Papay Model 25
2.2.1.7 Li Xiangfang (LXF) Model 25
2.2.1.8 Zhang Guodong Model 26
2.2.2 Correction Methods 26
2.2.2.1 Guo Xuqiang Method 27
2.2.2.2 Carr-Kobayshi-Burrows Correction
Method 27
2.2.2.3 Wichert-Aziz Correction Method 27
2.3 Model Optimization 28
2.4 Conclusions 34
References 35
3. H2S Viscosities and Densities at High-Temperatures
and Pressures 37
Binod R. Giri, Robert A. Marriott, and Pierre Blais
3.1 Introduction 38
3.2 Experimental 39
3.3 Results and Discussion 41
3.4 Conclusions and Outlook 46
3.5 Acknowledgement 47
References 47
4. Solubility of Methane in Propylene Carbonate 49
Fang-Yuan Jou, Kurt A.G. Schmidt, and Alan E. Mather
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Results and Discussion 50
4.3 Nomenclature 54
4.4 Acknowledgement 54
References 54
Part 2: Process
5. A Holistic Look at Gas Treating Simulation 59
Nathan A. Hatcher, R. Scott Alvis,
and Ralph H. Weiland
5.1 Introduction 60
5.2 Clean Versus Dirty Solvents: Heat
Stable Salts 61
Contents vii
5.2.1 CO2 Removal Using MEA, and
MDEA Promoted With Piperazine 67
5.2.2 Piperazine-promoted MDEA in an
Ammonia Plant 68
5.2.3 Post-combustion CO2 Capture 70
5.2.4 LNG Absorber 74
5.3 Summary 77
6. Controlled Freeze Zone™ Commercial Demonstration
Plant Advances Technology for the Commercialization
of North American Sour Gas Resources 79
R.H. Oelfke, R.D. Denton, and J.A. Valencia
6.1 Introduction – Gas Demand
and Sour Gas Challenges 80
6.2 Acid Gas Injection 80
6.3 Controlled Freeze Zone™ — Single Step
Removal of CO2 and H2S 81
6.4 Development Scenarios Suitable for Utilizing CFZ™
Technology 84
6.5 Commercial Demonstration Plant Design
& Initial Performance Data 86
6.6 Conclusions and Forward Plans 89
Bibliography 89
7. Acid Gas Dehydration – A DexPro™ Technology
Update 91
Jim Maddocks, Wayne McKay, and Vaughn Hansen
7.1 Introduction 91
7.2 Necessity of Dehydration 92
7.3 Dehydration Criteria 94
7.4 Acid Gas – Water Phase Behaviour 96
7.5 Conventional Dehydration Methods 99
7.5.1 Desiccant Adsorption 100
7.5.2 Desiccant Absorption 100
7.5.3 Separation Based Processes 103
7.5.4 Avoidance Based Processes 103
7.5.5 Thermodynamic/Refrigerative Based
Processes 103
7.6 Development of DexPro 107
7.7 DexPro Operating Update 112
7.8 DexPro Next Steps 113
viii Contents
7.9 Murphy Tupper – 2012 Update 113
7.10 Acknowledgements 115
8. A Look at Solid CO2 Formation in Several High CO2
Concentration Depressuring Scenarios 117
James van der Lee, John J. Carroll, and Marco Satyro
8.1 Introduction 117
8.2 Methodology 118
8.3 Thermodynamic Property Package Description 118
8.4 Model Confi guration 119
8.5 Results 121
8.6 Discussion 124
8.6.1 20 bar 124
8.6.1.1 Vapour Blow Down 124
8.6.1.2 Liquid Blow Down 125
8.6.2 40 bar 125
8.6.2.1 Vapour Blow Down 125
8.6.2.2 Liquid Blow Down 125
8.6.3 60 bar 125
8.6.3.1 Vapour Blow Down 125
8.6.3.2 Liquid Blow Down 127
8.7 Conclusions 127
References 128
Part 3: Acid Gas Injection
9. Potential Sites and Early Opportunities of Acid Gas
Re-injection in China 131
Qi Li, Xiaochun Li, Lei Du, Guizhen Liu, Xuehao Liu,
Ning Wei
9.1 Introduction 132
9.2 Potential Storage Capacity for CCS 134
9.3 Emission Sources of Acid Gases 134
9.4 Distribution of High H2S Bearing Gas Field 135
9.5 Systematic Screening of Potential Sites 136
9.6 Early Deployment Opportunities of AGI 137
9.7 Conclusions 139
9.8 Acknowledgements 140
References 140
Contents ix
10. Acid Gas Injection for a Waste Stream with Heavy
Hydrocarbons and Mercaptans 143
Xingyuan Zhao, John J. Carroll, and Ying Wu
10.1 Basis 143
10.2 Phase Envelope 144
10.3 Water Content 146
10.4 Hydrates 147
10.5 Dehydration and Compression 149
10.6 Discussion 151
10.7 Conclusion 151
References 152
11. Compression of Acid Gas and CO2 with Reciprocating
Compressors and Diaphragm Pumps for Storage and
Enhanced Oil Recovery 153
Anke Braun, Josef Jarosch, Rainer Dübi, and Luzi Valär
11.1 Conclusion 163
References 164
12. Investigation of the Use of Choke Valves in Acid Gas
Compression 165
James van der Lee, and Edward Wichert
12.1 Introduction 166
12.2 Water Content Behaviour of Acid Gas 167
12.3 Test Cases to Ascertain the Effect of
Choke Valves 169
12.4 Test Case 1: 20% H2S, 78% CO2 and 2% C1 170
12.5 Test Case 2: 50% H2S, 48% CO2 and 2% C1 173
12.6 Test Case 3: 80% H2S, 18% CO2 and 2% C1 175
12.7 Conclusions 180
13. The Kinetics of H2S Oxidation by Trace O2 and Prediction
of Sulfur Deposition in Acid Gas Compression Systems 183
N. I. Dowling, R. A. Marriott, A. Primak, and S. Manley
13.1 Introduction 184
13.2 Experimental 185
13.3 Experimental Results and
Calculation Methods 186
x Contents
13.3.1 Determination of the Kinetics of
H2S Oxidation 186
13.3.2 Thermodynamic Model for Sulfur Solubility 198
13.3.2.1 Pure Sulfur Phases 202
13.3.2.2 Liquid Sulfur Under Sour
Gas Pressure 203
13.3.2.3 Fugacity of S8 in a Sour Gas or
Acid Gas Phase 204
13.4 Discussion and Demonstration of Utility 208
13.5 Conclusions 212
References 213
14. Blowout Calculations for Acid Gas Well with High
Water Cut 215
Shouxi Wang, and John J. Carroll
14.1 Introduction 215
14.2 Water 217
14.2.1 Case Study 1 218
14.2.1.1 Isothermal 218
14.2.1.2 Linear Temperature 218
14.2.1.3 Actual Temperature Profi les 219
14.2.1.4 Reservoir Pressure 220
14.2.2 Effect of Tubing Diameter 221
14.3 Trace Amount of Gas 221
14.3.1 Case Study 2 222
14.4 Break-Out Gas 222
14.4.1 Case Study 3 222
14.5 Brine vs. Water 226
14.6 Discussion 226
References 226
Part 4: Subsurface
15. Infl uence of Sulfur Deposition on Gas Reservoir
Development 229
Weiyao Zhu, Xiaohe Huang, Yunqian Long,
and Jia Deng
15.1 Introduction 229
15.2 Mathematical Models of Flow Mechanisms 230
Contents xi
15.2.1 Mathematical Model of Sulfur Deposition 230
15.2.2 Thermodynamics Model of Three-phase
Equilibrium 231
15.2.3 Equation of State 234
15.2.4 Solubility Calculation Model 234
15.2.5 Infl uence Mathematical Model of Sulfur
Deposition Migration to Reservoir
Characteristics 235
15.3 The Mathematical Model of
Multiphase Complex Flow 236
15.3.1 Basic Supposition 236
15.3.2 The Mathematical Model of Gas-liquid-solid
Complex Flow in Porous Media 237
15.3.2.1 Flow Differential Equations 237
15.3.2.2 Unstable Differential Equations of
Gas-liquid-solid Complex Flow 238
15.3.2.3 Relationship between Saturation
and Pressure of Liquid Phase 239
15.3.2.4 Auxiliary Equations 240
15.3.2.5 Defi nite Conditions 240
15.4 Solution of the Mathematical Model Equations 240
15.4.1 Defi nite Output Solutions 240
15.4.2 Productivity Equation 242
15.5 Example 242
15.6 Conclusions 244
References 245
16. Modeling and Evaluation of Oilfi eld Fluid Processing
Schemes 247
Jie Zhang, Ayodeji A. Jeje, Gang Chen, Haiying Cheng,
Yuan You, and Shugang Li
16.1 Introduction 248
16.2 Treatment of Produced Water 249
16.2.1 Experiments 249
16.2.2 Test Methods 250
16.2.3 Results 251
16.3 Treatment of Re-circulating Mud 252
16.3.1 Test Facility 252
16.3.2 Test Methods 253
16.3.3 Analysis of Test Results 253
xii Contents
16.4 Test on Gas-cut, Water-based Mud 255
16.4.1 Test Facility 255
16.4.2 Test Method 255
16.4.3 Test Results 256
16.5 Conclusion 259
References 260
17. Optimization of the Selection of Oil-Soluble Surfactant
for Enhancing CO2 Displacement Effi ciency 261
Ping Guo, Songjie Jiao, Fu Chen, and Jie He
17.1 Introduction 262
17.2 Experiment Preparation
and Experimental Conditions 263
17.2.1 Experiment Preparation 263
17.2.2 Experimental Conditions 264
17.3 Experiment Contents and Methods 264
17.4 Optimization of Surfactants 265
17.4.1 Oil-soluble Determination of
Surfactant CAE 265
17.4.2 The Solubility Evaluation of CAE and CAF
in Supercritical CO2 265
17.4.3 The Viscosity Reduction Evaluation of
CAE and CAF 266
17.4.4 The Displacement Effi ciency Contrast
of CAE and CAF 266
17.5 The Displacement Effi ciency Research
on Oil-soluble Surfactant Optimization 268
17.5.1 The Optimization of Surfactant Flooding
Pattern 268
17.5.2 The Slug Flooding Optimization of Different
Surfactant Concentration 269
17.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 270
17.7 Acknowledgement 271
References 271
Index 273


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BISAC SUBJECT HEADINGS
TEC031030: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels
TEC009010: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC010000: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
 
BIC CODES
THF: Fossil fuel technologies
THFG: Gas technology
TQ: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

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